Components of the Orientation Programmes

In order to achieve the objectives of the Scheme, the curriculum for the Orientation Programmes may have the following four components with a minimum of 144 contact hours, that is, six hours daily for a four-week/24 working days programme:

COMPONENT A: Awareness of linkages between society, environment, development and education.
COMPONENT B: Philosophy of education, Indian education system and pedagogy.
COMPONENT C: Resource awareness and knowledge generation.
COMPONENT D: Management and personality development.


Component A: Awareness of Linkages between Society, Environment, Development and Education.This component should aim at helping the teacher to realize the larger context of education and the role of a teacher in society. Some illustrative topics to be covered are:

  • Constitution of India – secularism, egalitarian society, multilingualism, multiple cultures, equality
  • National integration
  • Status of women and children
  • Inclusive development
  • Environmental awareness and biodiversity
  • Economic issues – poverty, unemployment, rural development, economic trends and national development, etc.
  • Urbanization and modernization
  • Youth power
  • Role and responsibility of a teacher
  • Value-based education
  • Indian tradition, culture and Indian identity
  • Human rights
  • Sustainable development, biodiversity etc.
  • Globalisation, privatization and liberalization
  • Public interest movements (PIL, consumer protection, judicial activism, etc.)
  • Aesthetics


Component B: Philosophy of Education, Indian Education System and Pedagogy
This component should aim at imparting basic skills and sensitivities that a teacher needs for effective classroom teaching. Some of the illustrative topics are: 14

  • Philosophy of education: Aims at value-based education; role of social and educational institutions, comparative educational systems, internationalization of education
  • Indian education system, policies, programmes and planning; organisational structure, university autonomy
  • Economics of education and human resource development: resource mobilizations
  • Quality assurance in higher education: Indicators of quality assurance, assessment and accreditation, quality assurance agencies viz; UGC, AICTE, NCTE, NAAC, etc.
  • Learner and the learning process: Understanding the adolescent learner, motivation, interests, human development, memory, aptitudes, intelligence, learning styles
  • Methods and materials of teaching: Prescribed texts, effective classroom teaching techniques, and assignments
  • Technology in teaching: Concept of teaching, levels of teaching and phases of teaching; audio, video, educational films, ICT, computers, etc.
  • Curriculum design: Approaches, curriculum development, needs-based courses and remedial courses
  • Evaluation and feedback: Measurement and examination reforms, including setting question papers
  • Alternate methods of learning: Distance and open learning, self-learning, informal learning, virtual classrooms, etc.

Component C: Resource Awareness and Knowledge Generation
This component should aim at helping the teachers to be self-sufficient, and continuously abreast of new knowledge and techniques, processes, methods and sources of knowledge. Some of the illustrative topics are:

  • Information and Communication Technology: New modes of information storage and retrieval, computer application, communications, multimedia, computer-aided learning, Internet, etc.
  • Documentation centre: Information networks, information super highway, national and international databases
  • Libraries: Reference material, bibliographies, encyclopedia, periodicals
  • Institutions: Apex and specialized institutions, museums, laboratories, centers of excellence, etc.
  • Research: Research projects, sponsoring agencies, academic writing and publication, etc.
  • Industry-university linkages.


Component D: Management and Personality Development
Under this component teachers should be familiarized with the organisation and management of the college/university. They should be made aware of the ways in which they may develop their own personalities. Illustrative topics may be:

  • Communication skills: Verbal and non-verbal
  • Thinking skills and scientific temper
  • Creativity
  • Leadership, team building and work culture
  • Administrative skills: Decision-making, service rules, human relations and interpersonal effectiveness
  • Educational management: Institutional management, management of committees, examinations, hobby clubs, sports and co-curricular activities
  • Student guidance and counseling
  • Mental health: Attitudes and values
  • Career planning, time management
  • Teacher effectiveness: Qualities of an effective teacher, code of conduct, accountability and empowerment.

As indicated, the above topics are illustrative in nature. Depending upon the requirements of teachers and their academic background, the ASC will select the number of topics and methodologies of teaching.
Weight age to each component is to be kept flexible, and the ASC may decide the time allocation and modalities of the input depending upon the needs of the respective groups.